Major Insect Pest Management Of Sugarcane Crop

 

          Sugarcane is a long duration crop of 10-18 months and therefore is liable to be attacked by a number of insect pests and diseases.  According to an estimate, sugarcane production declines by 20.0 and 19.0 % by insect pests and diseases respectively.  To increase the crop productivity, management of insect-pest and diseases is of great significance.  Due to diversity in agro-ecological conditions the importance of insect pests and disease varies and therefore, management strategy should be adopted accordingly.

 

Sugarcane is infested by about 288 insects of which nearly two dozen causes heavy losses to the quality as well as quantity of the crop, as detail given below in Table.1.  The scenario of insect pests and diseases varies in sub-tropical and tropical belt of sugarcane.  Top borer and stalk borer are found pre-dominantly in sub-tropical areas whereas internodes borer and early shoot borer and among disease rust & eye spot are prevalent in tropical region

 

          Several management strategies have been developed as a result of research and development work.  In order to save environment from chemical pollution, use of bio-control has been given utmost attention.  The management technologies have been integrated as per need for increasing the efficiency.

 

TABLE.1: EXTENT OF LOSSES DUE TO DIFFERENT INSECT & PESTS IN INDIA

 

S. No.

Name of Pest

% reduction in cane yield

% reduction in sugar recovery

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

Early shoot borer

Internode borer

Top shoot borer

Stalk borer

Gurdaspur borer

Rood borer

Scale insect

Mealy bug

Black bug

Pyrilla

Arboridia sp.

White Fly

White grub(H)

Whiter grub(L)

Termite

Rodents

Sugarcane woolly aphid

22 to 33

34.88

21-37

upto 33

5-15

35.00

32.60

poor germination upto 35

31.60

14.70

86.00

80

100

33

22.27

7 to 39

2 CCS

1.7-3.07

0.2-4.1

1.7-3.07

0.1-0.8

0.3-2.90

1.5-2.5

brix loss 16.20

0.1-2.8

2.0-3.0

1.0-1.5

1.4-1.8

5.0-6.0

complete drying

4.5

-

1.2-3.43

 

ECONOMIC THRESHOLD LEVEL(ETL) OF SUGARCANE PESTS

 

          ETL is the density at which control measures should be determined to prevent an increase pest population from reaching economic injury level.  The ETL of major sugarcane pests are given in Table.2.  This helps to check the pests before they can cause notable damage to sugarcane crop.

 

          Table 2. Economic Threshold Level (ETL) of sugarcane pests.

Name of the pest

Economic threshold level

Early shoot borer

Pyrilla

Stalk borer

Internode borer

Top borer

White grub

Rodents

15.0-22.8% for late variety, 16.8% for early variety.

3-5 individuals/leaf or one egg mass1 leaf+

17 bored internodes1row of 6 m. length

16.15 to 28.39 bored canes1row of 6 m. length

15-22% incidence

15 beetles/host tree

15 live burrows/ha.

 


 

Table 3. Management schedule for insect pests of sugarcane for Subtropical India.

 

Crop stage

Pests covered

Control measures

Selection of

Borers and scale

Seed should not be taken from fields having more incidence

crop for seed

insect

 

Seed

Borers and scale

Setts showing borer damage should be discarded

selection

insect

 

Seed

Scale insect

Dipping the setts in 0.1 % malathion I 0.08 % dimethoate for

treatment

 

15 minutes

At planting

Termites, shoot

Application of chlorpyriphos or endosulfan at 1.0 Kg a. i. per ha over cane setts.

time

borer, root borer

 

April- May

Shoot borers

Release S. inference @ 125 gravid females per ha. GV

 

 

spraying 107- 108 IB per ml shoot borer

 

Thrips

Spraying with dimethoate 0.04%

June- July

Top bqrer

Soil application of 3 G carbofuran @ 1 Kg a. i. or 10 G

 

 

phorate @ 3 Kg a. i. per ha against third brood of the pest in

 

 

2nd week of June in Eastern U. P. and Bihar, in 4th week of

 

 

June 1st week of July in West U. P., Haryana and Punjab

 

 

Release of laboratory bred Isotima iavensis

July August

White grubs

Hand collection of adult beetles and grubs. Soil treatment

 

 

with quinalphos 5 G at 2.5 kg. a. i. per ha coinciding with rush of adult emergence.

 

 

 

July-

Gurudaspur

Mechanical control of infested plants having gregarious

September

borer, Plassey

Larval stage as large campaign.

 

borer

 

 

 

Pyrilla

Redistribution and Colonization of E. melanoleuca cocoons  or eggs masses

 

 

Foliar spray of M. anisopliae @ 107 spores 1ml

 

 

Release of Pyrilla adults seeded with M. anisopliae @ 250

 

 

adults Iha.

 

 

 

July-Oct.

Stalk borer,

Release of T. chilonis at 50,000 per ha at 10 days interval

internode borer,

 

 

Gurudaspur

 

 

borer, root borer

 

October - November

Stalk borer

Detrashing of dried leaves 2 times at 30 days interval

 

 

Removal of late shoots at 15 days intervals till harvest

 

 

Spraying cane stalk with monocrotophos at 0.75 Kg a. i. per ha following detrashing.

November-

Stalk borer

Beauria bassiana spraying @ 10 7 spores per ml to check the

December

 

carry over borer population

 

Black Bug

Release of adults seeded with spores of Beauria bassiana

 

@ 5000 per ha to check the carry over population

Harvesting

For pests, in

Deep harvesting

 

general (scale

Removal of water shoots or late shoots

,

insect, mealy

Trash burning

 

bug, black bug

 

 

and pyrilla)

 


Table 4.  Management schedule for insect pests of sugarcane for Tropical India

 

S.No

Crop stage

Pests covered

Control practices

1.

Land preparation

White grub

 

 

Termite

 

Sugarcane woolly aphid (SWA)

Expose the grub stages by deep ploughings for predation. Apply 1 kg. of 2 % methyl parathion dust in 1 cart load of FYM or compost.

Destroy the termitoria present on the bunds and nearer to the field

Paired or wider row planting

2.

Selection of seed crop

Scale insect, mealy bug,

white fly, borers, SWA

Seed should be free from the pest infestation and seed plots must be selected by concerned Agri. officers.

3.

Seed selection

Scale insect, mealy bug,

white fly, borers

Sugarcane setts damaged by borers, scale insects etc. should be discarded. The discarded setts, leaves left after seed preparation should be buried.

4.

Sett treatment

Scale insect, mealy bug, SWA

Dipping of setts in 0.15% malathion or 1- 0.08% dimethoate for 10-15 minutes.

5.

At planting(January)

Termite,

shoot borer,

root borer

 

    Soil application of 6 G lindane or 4:4 G sevidol  @1 kg. a.i. per ha.or Caldan 4 G @ 0.5 kg. a.i. per ha. Drenching of 20 EC chlorpyriphos @ 1 kg. a.i. in 1000 lit. of water per ha. or soil application of 5 G quinalphos @ 1.5 kg. a.i.per  ha.

6.

21 days after planting (January)

Shoot borer

 

 

 

Spittle bug

Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 3 to 5 lakh parasitized eggs1ha. at 15 days intervals in suitable installments.

Placement of pheromone sleeve traps @ 25 per ha. for C. infuscatellus control & destroy male adults

Spraying of 0.08% dimethoate

7.

45 days after planting (February)

Shoot borer

 

White grub SWA

Root borer

Small earthing up followed by trash mulching. Do not undertake maize, sorghum as intercrops. Prefer coriander, garlic, and onion as intercrops. Prefer paired row system for planting.

Collect and destroy the grub stages during weeding. Needbase application of insecticide.

 Drenching of 20 EC chlorpyriphos @ 1 kg. a.i. per ha in 1000 lit. of water per ha. or soil application of 5 G quinalphos @ 1.5 kg. a.i per ha.


 

8.

60 days after planting(March)

White fly Leafhopper

Pyrilla

White grub (L) Scale insect and mealy bug, SWA

 

 

 

 

 

Rodents

Remove 2-3 leaves containing pest stages. Spray 0.08% monocrotophos or DDVP with addition of 2.5 % N in spray solution or spray neemark @ 5 lit per ha.

Release 1000 viable cocoons of Epiricania parasites per ha.

Apply 10 G phorate @ 2.5 kg. a.i. per ha.

Apply 10 G phorate @ 2.5 kg. a.i. per ha.

Detrash the lower dry leaves and spray 0.08 % dimethoate.

­Apply bromadiolone cake 0.005 % in rodent burrows or bait stations continuously for two days.

9.

90-120 days after planting, (April - May)

White grub (H)

 

 

 

Internode borer

 

 

Topshoot borer

 

White fly

Collection and destruction of beetles from neem trees during night time immediately after first heavy showers.

Release T. chilonis @ 3 to 5 lakh parasitized eggs per ha. at 15 days intervals in suitable installments

Destroy the egg masses and remove the affected canes along with pest stages.

Avoid excess use of N fertilizers before earthing up.

10.

 

150 - 180      

days after

planting (June-July)

White grub (H)

Pyrilla

 

 

 

 

SWA

 

 

Grasshopper

Collection and destruction of beetles from neem trees during night time immediately after first heavy showers. Soil application of 10 G phorate @ 2.5 kg. per ha or 2 % methyl parathion dust @ 2 kg. a. i. ha.

Release 1000 viable cocoons of Epiricania parasites per ha.

Spot spraying of bio-pesticide like Verticillium

Dusting of 2 % methyl parathion dust @ 40 kg. per ha in sugarcane and on bunds.


 

11.

210 - 240 days after planting

(August -­September)

White fly

 

 

 

 

Pyrilla

 

 

SWA

 

 

White grub (L)

 

 

Army worm

 

Leafhopper

 

 

Rodents

 

 

Nematodes

 

 

 

Snail

 

 

Remove 2-3 leaves containing egg and pupal stages. Spray 0.08 % DDVP or monocrotophos with addition of 2.5 % N in spray solution or spray neemark @ 5 lit1ha. or release 1000 adults of Chrysoperla carnae predator per ha.

 

Release 1000 viable cocoons of  Epiricania parasites per ha.

 

Augmentation of predators like Dipha,

 Micromus and Syrphid fly @ 1000 larvae or  cocoons per ha.

Collection and destruction of adults from sugarcane. Apply 10 G phorate @ 2.5 kg. a.i. per ha.

 

Collection and destruction of larvae during rainy season.

Remove 2-3 leaves containing pest stages. Spray 0.08 % DDVP or monocrotophos.

 

Apply bromadiolone cake 0.005 % in rodent burrows or bait stations continuously for two days

 

Soil application of 3 G carbofuran @ per kg. a.i. per ha. Cleaning of bunds and fields,

collection and destruction of snails, dusting of lime on snails. Metaldehyde and iron phosphate baiting.

12.

 

240 days onwards till harvest.

 

Internode borer

 

 

 

Pyrilla

 

Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 3 to 5 lakh parasitized eggs per ha. at 15 days interval in suitable installments and use pheromone traps.

 

Release 1000 viable cocoons of Epiricania parasites per ha.

 

13.

At harvest

Root borer

Harvesting at ground level to destroy the pest stages. Destroy stray of plants

14.

Post harvest

 

White fly

Root borer White grub Snail

 

SWA

 

In heavily affected fields burn the trash after harvest.

Do not keep the ratoons in heavily affected fields.

Use rotavator and subsoiler to destroy the pest stages

Proper crop rotation

 

 

 

 

 

Important Diseases of Sugarcane and Their Management:

 

.

Sl.

No.

Name of disease

 

Causal agent

Symptoms

 

Disease management.

 

1.

Red rot

 

Glomerella

tucumanensis

The spindle leaves (3rd14th)) display drying. At a later stage, stalks become discoloured and hollow. Acervuli (black fruiting bodies) develop on rind and nodes. After splitting open the diseased stalk, a sour smell emanates. The internal tissues are reddened with intermingled

transverse white spots. In advanced stage of the disease, the colour becomes earthy brown with pith cavity in the centre showing white cottony hyphae and sometimes fruiting bodies of fungus (acervuli). In rainy season, the disease spreads so fast that whole crop dries and not a single millable cane is obtained.

Resistant or moderately resistant varieties should be used. Any sett showing reddening at the cut ends or at the nodal region should be discarded. Healthy seed should be planted. Such seed must be produced from crop raised from heat treatment of seed canes in moist hot air at 54°C for 2.5 hour at 99% humidity. As soon as disease' is noticed, the affected clump along with root system should be uprooted and burnt. Bunding of affected field should be done to avoid movement of rain or floodwater. Ratooning of diseased crop should be avoided. Diseased crop should be harvested as early as possible. Crop rotation should be followed in affected fields.

 

2.

Smut

 

Ustilago scitaminea

 

The new sprouts are lean and lanky ,profuse in number and the growing point projects out a long black whip covered with black spores. Affected plants have slender and thin canes with erect and pointed leaves. Such plants can be easily located before the production of smut whip.

 

Resistant or modera­tely resistant varieties should be used. Healthy seed (as mentioned under red rot) should be planted. Pre-treatment of seed pieces by dipping in 2.5% organomercurial fungicide helps reduce the incidence. Removal of affected clump showing smut whip during tillering phase effectively reduced the disease incidence.

 


 

3.

 

Wilt

 

Cephalosporium

sacchari

Wilt symptoms usually appear after monsoon. Infected clumps, individually or collectively, show stunting and yellowing of top leaves. In severe cases, whole clump dries, cane becomes hollow and lighter in weight. Red discolouration in internodes is more intense towards nodes which do not emit specific odour.

 

Healthy seed (as mentioned under red rot) should be planted. Seed setts may be treated with organom­ercurial fungicide before planting. Crop rotation should be followed in affected field.

 

4.

 

Grassy shoot

 

Mycoplasma like organism (MLO)

 

 

A large number lean and lanky, pale sprouts in the clump appear like a 'bunchy grass'. Nor­mal stalks are not formed.

 

Resistant or moderate­ly resistant varieties should be planted. Healthy seed (as mentioned under red rot) should be used. Setts may be treated with antibiotics like Achromycin, Terra­mycin, Tylan, Erythro­mycin @ 250 ppm.

 

 

5.

Mosaic

 

Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV)

 

Young leaves of the crown held against the light source display chlorotic and normal green area imparting mosaic pattern.  The chlorotic area may show reddening or necrosis.  Leaf sheath may also display such sysmptoms.

Seed should be obtained from disease free plant crop.  Secondary transmission of the disease by insect vectors can be controlled by application of Malathion(0.1%) or Dimecron(0.2%)